Across all the sectors there are few common trends such as increased digitization, the proliferation of IoT, and increased device connectivity. Such trends bring increased risks, threats and vulnerabilities to data, devices, and systems. Scientists, engineers, and researchers rely on various cryptography methods to securely process and transmit information across distances. The most popular types are public and private key cryptography.
Due to increased threats in the world today and as computers are becoming more powerful, the already existing algorithms can be decoded, and the keys can be stolen. Security experts are looking beyond classical cryptography which is based on mathematics and looking towards quantum cryptography based on physics and quantum mechanical phenomena of subatomic particles like photons to offer secure solutions to key exchange problems.
Quantum cryptography is based on the usage of individual particles/waves of light (photon) and their intrinsic quantum properties to develop keys that are used with an algorithm to send the information. In Quantum Cryptography, classical algorithm such as RSA, DES, etc. can be used to encrypt the information and Quantum coding is used to generate & send the key. This is known as Quantum Key Distribution. It works on protocol BB84 which was developed in 1984 by Bennet and Brassard. Quantum cryptography will allow for a more secure transfer of the keys with this technique of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD).